The method should be suitable:
1. Suitable location and time
In order to avoid skin and body damage caused by strong sunshine, sports venues should be indoors as far as possible, such as indoor table tennis, badminton, swimming, etc. If you like outdoor sports, you can choose cool and ventilated places such as parks, lakes, courtyards, etc. The best time to exercise is in the morning or in the evening when the weather is cool. Avoid outdoor sports from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
2. Suitable Sports Events
Vigorous outdoor sports are not suitable for middle-aged and old people, such as football, basketball, outdoor tennis and so on. Swimming is recognized as the best sport in summer. Other indoor sports such as gymnastics, table tennis, badminton, yoga and equipment exercise are good. When the sunshine is not very strong in the morning and evening, some moderate aerobic exercises such as running, walking, cycling and so on are also very beneficial to health.
3. Suitable amount of exercise
In summer, the physical reserve of human body is relatively weak. Therefore, relaxed exercise is advocated. The time is controlled in 30 to 45 minutes, the intensity is reduced appropriately, and the target heart rate can be 5-10 times lower than usual. At the same time, exercise should still follow the principle of "warm-up-exercise-finishing". The amount of preparatory activities should not be too large. The interval between the completion of preparatory activities and the beginning of formal activities should be 1 - 4 minutes. If you feel tired before the formal exercise, when you enter the formal exercise, your body can not be in the best state, which is easy to cause muscle strain. No matter what kind of exercise, we should start with small amount of exercise, and gradually increase the amount of exercise after all parts of the body muscle activity. At the end of the exercise, do some relaxation and adjustment activities, such as walking slowly, kneading legs, taking several deep breaths, etc.
Summer sports 5 major points for attention:
1. Dress comfortably
Cotton is the best sportswear. The looser the style, the better the heat dissipation performance. At the same time, clothes should not be exposed when exercising. When the highest temperature approaches or exceeds 37 C, bare or bare back can not dissipate heat, but the skin will absorb heat from the outside environment, so bare or bare back will feel hotter in summer, and strong ultraviolet rays directly irradiate the skin, which will also cause skin sunburn.
2. Make up water scientifically
Drink 450-600ml of water 10-15 minutes before exercise, 150-240ml of water every 10-15 minutes during exercise, even if you are not thirsty, but do not drink sweet drinks. After exercising, we should also replenish water in time, but don't drink enough at one time. Instead, we should "drink less many times". If you drink too much water, it will cause stomach muscle spasm, abdominal pain and other symptoms. You should take a few minutes after vigorous exercise to replenish water properly. In addition, we should pay attention to the inappropriate supplementation of pure water after exercise, because the pure water contains almost no salt and minerals excreted by human sweating. When people exercise intensely under high temperature, their body sweats a lot, resulting in the loss of water and salt in the body. If a large amount of drinking water is not timely supplement of salt, the concentration of sodium chloride in the blood will be reduced, the excitability of muscles will be increased, and muscle spasm and pain will be easily caused. Warm salt water is the best beverage after exercise. It can also choose low sugar and salt beverage or sports beverage.
After exercise, the whole body blood was redistributed, and a large amount of blood poured into the muscles and body surface to supply the need for exercise, while the digestive organs were relatively less blood. If you drink a large amount of frozen beverage at this time, because the temperature is too low, strong stimulation of the stomach in a temporary ischemic state can damage its physiological function, appetite drop in the light, acute gastritis in the heavy, and further cause chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer and other diseases. In fact, warm drinks are the best choice after exercise. Experiments show that the drink at 25 - 30 C can be absorbed by stomach quickly.
3. Cooling should be reasonable
Cooling down after exercise should not be too fast. When you are sweating hard after exercise, it is a good idea for many people to uncover clothes in front of fans, blow them directly under super-cooled air conditioning, and turn on the tap to let the cold water rush directly to your body to achieve "rapid cooling". Little imagine, this "rapid cooling" way, often happy for a while, uncomfortable for several days. After exercise, the pore is in an enlarged state. Sudden cold stimulation can make the pore shrink rapidly, which is extremely harmful to the body, easy to be disturbed by cold evil, and even cause various diseases. The correct way to do this is to dry your sweat with a towel and rest in the shade for a slow cooling.
4. Supplement alkali in diet
Sweat sweats heavily during exercise, resulting in the loss of a large number of salt and potassium ions in the body, while excessive loss of potassium ions can lead to muscle weakness, body aches, arrhythmia, sleepiness and mental retardation. In addition, because sports consume a lot of physical energy, resulting in excessive accumulation of pyruvic acid, lactic acid and other metabolic intermediates in the body. At this time, the alkali storage in blood decreases, which easily leads to the disorder of blood acid-base balance. In order to maintain normal acidity and alkalinity, it is necessary to increase the alkali storage in blood. Therefore, more alkaline food is needed for exercise in summer. Alkaline food is mainly fruit, watermelon, pineapple, apricot, peach, plum, Hami melon and so on are rich in potassium salt.
5. Alkali supplementation in diet
Sweating during exercise causes a large number of salt and potassium ions in the body to be lost with sweat, while excessive loss of potassium ions can lead to muscle weakness, aching, irregular rhythm, drowsiness and low spirits. In addition, because sports consume a lot of physical energy, resulting in excessive accumulation of pyruvic acid, lactic acid and other metabolic intermediates in the body. At this time, the alkali storage in blood decreases, which easily leads to the disorder of blood acid-base balance. In order to maintain normal acidity and alkalinity, it is necessary to increase the alkali storage in blood. Therefore, more alkaline food is needed for exercise in summer. Alkaline food is mainly fruit, watermelon, pineapple, apricot, peach, plum, Hami melon and so on are rich in potassium salt.
Advantages and disadvantages of summer exercise:
In the hot season, people are prone to sleepiness, irritability, depression and laziness. Some people think that staying at home is too hot to bear. How can they participate in sports activities? Therefore, many people like to "hatch" air conditioning, reluctant to exercise. So, what should we pay attention to in summer? The advantages and disadvantages of exercise in high temperature weather, as the saying goes, "39 in winter, 3 in summer". It is also necessary to exercise in high temperature weather.
1. Practice has proved that regular exercise in high temperature weather can enhance the body's heat tolerance and adaptability, and improve disease resistance. Studies have shown that the body's tolerance to heat is related to the number of heat stress proteins in the cells of the body. People who persist in exercise have a marked increase in the synthesis of heat stress proteins, and their tolerance to heat is enhanced, which can resist the attack of high temperature heat waves. Frequently enjoying air conditioning, away from the thermal environment, the synthesis of heat stress protein in the body decreases, and the resistance to high temperature also decreases. Once you leave the air conditioning, you will find it difficult to adapt to the hot wave environment.
2. Exercise in hot weather can maintain the effect of previous exercise and make the body healthier. The experimental observation also found that people who exercised regularly in summer had better heart function, vital capacity, digestive function and lower incidence than those who did not exercise regularly.
3. Exercise can improve the metabolism of the human body. Sunlight can also increase the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin, enhance the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, so as to strengthen the skeleton and prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly people.
But at this time, there are also some obvious deficiencies in sports, such as sweating, dehydration, disorder of water and electrolyte in the body; exercise in the sun is vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation, causing skin lesions; high temperature can lead to heatstroke, etc. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the scientific nature of fitness in summer sports.